To measure variation in delivery-related severe maternal morbidity (SMM) among individuals with Medicaid insurance by state and by race and ethnicity across and within states.
We conducted a pooled, cross-sectional analysis of the 2016–2018 TAF (Transformed Medicaid Statistical Information System Analytic Files). We measured overall and state-level rates of SMM without blood transfusion for all individuals with Medicaid insurance with live births in 49 states and Washington, DC. We also examined SMM rates among non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White individuals with Medicaid insurance in a subgroup of 27 states (and Washington, DC). We generated unadjusted rates of composite SMM and the individual indicators of SMM that comprised the composite. Rate differences and rate ratios were calculated to compare SMM rates for non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White individuals with Medicaid insurance.
The overall rate of SMM without blood transfusion was 146.2 (95% CI 145.1–147.3) per 10,000 deliveries (N=4,807,143). Rates of SMM ranged nearly threefold, from 80.3 (95% CI 71.4–89.2) per 10,000 deliveries in Utah to 210.4 (95% CI 184.6–236.1) per 10,000 deliveries in Washington, DC. Non-Hispanic Black individuals with Medicaid insurance (n=629,774) experienced a higher overall rate of SMM (212.3, 95% CI 208.7–215.9) compared with non-Hispanic White individuals with Medicaid insurance (n=1,051,459); (125.3, 95% CI 123.2–127.4) per 10,000 deliveries (rate difference 87.0 [95% CI 82.8–91.2]/10,000 deliveries; rate ratio 1.7 [95% CI 1.7–1.7]). The leading individual indicator of SMM among all individuals with Medicaid insurance was eclampsia, although the leading indicators varied across states and by race and ethnicity. Many states were concordant in leading indicators among the overall, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic White populations (ie, in Oklahoma sepsis was the leading indicator for all three). Most states, however, were discordant in leading indicators across the three groups (ie, in Texas eclampsia was the leading indicator overall, pulmonary edema or acute heart failure was the leading indicator among the non-Hispanic Black population, and sepsis was the leading indicator among the non-Hispanic White population).
Interventions aimed at reducing SMM and, ultimately, mortality among individuals with Medicaid insurance may benefit from the data generated from this study, which highlights states that have the greatest burden of SMM, the differences in rates among non-Hispanic Black populations compared with non-Hispanic White populations, and the leading indicators of SMM overall, by state, and by race and ethnicity.
Admon LK, Auty SG, Daw JR, Kozhimannil KB, Declercq ER, Wang N, & Gordon SH. State Variation in Severe Maternal Morbidity Among Individuals With Medicaid Insurance. Obstetrics & Gynecology 141(5):p 877-885. DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000005144